With 5G and 6G millimeter wave wireless communications, the resulting radiation reflects on most visible objects, creating rich multipath environments, as shown in the simulation below. The radiation is mainly shaped by the obstacles it interacts with, carrying latency information regarding the relative positions of the transmitter, the obstacles, and the mobile receiver.

The creation of beamforming fingerprints is achieved by establishing beamforming patterns transmitted by a single base station. Making use of the hidden information, AI using deep learning techniques are employed to convert the received beamformed fingerprints into a mobile device’s position. Average errors of down to sub-meter are obtained on realistic outdoor scenarios.